International Research in Medical and Health Sciences en-US International Research in Medical and Health Sciences 2581-771X Examining the Performance of Nursing and Midwifery Students Regarding the Control of Hospital Infections <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Hospital infections are one of the problems of hospitals in all countries. Nosocomial infections occur as a result of the patient's stay in the hospital and are among the most important causes of medical, social, and economic problems in different countries. As one of the members of the health care team, the nurse has a vital role in controlling and preventing these infections, so this study aims to investigate the performance of nursing students regarding the control of hospital infections at Shahid Beheshti School of Nursing and Midwifery in the year 2021 was done.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted with the aim of investigating the performance of nursing students in controlling hospital infections in Shahid Beheshti School of Nursing and Midwifery in 2021. The research population included undergraduate nursing students. An available random sampling method was used. The tool for collecting information was a researcher-made questionnaire. After completing the sampling, the data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 statistical software and descriptive and inferential statistical tests using independent t-tests, analysis of variance, and chi-square.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In this study, the performance of 160 nursing students (33% male and 67% female) in the field of hospital infection control was investigated using a questionnaire. The average performance score of the students was at a good level and the performance score was almost good (Table 1). There was no statistically significant difference between the average grades of students in different age groups (P&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In line with the aim of the study, students' performance in hospital infection control, the results showed that the average scores of students' performance were in three levels: poor, average, and good.</p> Shiva Moradi Pouriya Darabiyan Nazanin Damsaz Hafshejani Mohammad Hosein Mohammad Ebrahim Malihe Rahime Zahra Karimi Dastenaei Mahdieh Ghorbani Kosar Piri Maryam Roze Ahvazi Parastoo Daemi Mojdehi Negin Asadiyan Ali Ahmadi Alireza Rafi Copyright (c) 2024 International Research in Medical and Health Sciences 2024-06-10 2024-06-10 7 2 1 6 10.36437/irmhs.2024.7.2.A Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Severe Breakthrough COVID-19 Infections among Hospitalized Patients in Africa <p><strong>Background: </strong>The emergence of breakthrough COVID-19 infections among fully vaccinated individuals has raised concerns regarding vaccine efficacy and the impact of emerging variants. This systematic review aims to investigate the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of severe breakthrough infections among hospitalized patients in Africa.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A comprehensive literature search was conducted from 2021 to 12 April 2024 across major academic databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus, to identify outcome studies on severe breakthrough COVID-19 infections among hospitalized patients in Africa. Data extraction and synthesis were performed to analyze the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of severe breakthrough COVID-19 infections.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Findings revealed a concerning incidence of breakthrough infections, particularly notable during the Omicron variant period, emphasizing ongoing transmission risks within vaccinated populations. Risk factors such as younger age (16-35) years, and incomplete vaccination schemas were consistently associated with severe breakthrough infections, guiding risk stratification and targeted interventions. Clinical characteristics highlighted a notable proportion of severe cases, underscoring the importance of continued vigilance and preventive measures.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Breakthrough COVID-19 infections in Africa, particularly in countries like Egypt and South Africa reveal varying incidence rates, risk factors, and outcomes. These studies underscore the importance of understanding the dynamics of breakthrough infections and their implications for public health interventions. While studies in Egypt, and South Africa provide valuable insights into the factors contributing to breakthrough infections and their outcomes, there is a notable gap in research in other African countries. Conducting similar studies in other African countries is crucial to tailor vaccination strategies and public health interventions to the local context. By understanding the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of breakthrough infections, policymakers and healthcare practitioners can better allocate resources, implement targeted interventions, and mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on the population. Additionally, research in other African countries can contribute to global knowledge on breakthrough infections, particularly in understudied regions, and inform broader strategies for controlling the spread of COVID-19 worldwide. Therefore, conducting a study on breakthrough infections in other African countries is essential to fill this gap in knowledge and enhance the effectiveness of COVID-19 response efforts in a country and beyond.</p> Ruth Chipampe Kafwanka Mubanga Chipimo Copyright (c) 2024 International Research in Medical and Health Sciences 2024-06-10 2024-06-10 7 2 7 21 10.36437/irmhs.2024.7.2.B A Study to Assess Medication Adherence among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease attending the Out-patient Department, Tertiary Care Hospital, Vellore <p><strong>Background:</strong> Due to the high prevalence of long-term health issues and the aging population, medication non-adherence is a widespread issue worldwide. If a patient doesn't take their prescription as directed, they probably won't benefit from it to its fullest extent.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives:</strong> To identify medication adherence among patients with CKD.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A cross-sectional research design for a period of 1 year A total of 45 patients with CKD were recruited using the consecutive sampling technique.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The age group &lt; 53 was 4.73 (SD 1.38) and the&gt; 53 age group was 4 (SD 1.21) Majority of them lived in rural localities 4.46 (SD 1.44), Married 4.45 (SD 1.28). Employed 3.75 (SD 0.0), Joint family 4.86 (SD 1.32), and had primary education 4.25 (SD 2.28). 80% were nonadherent to medication in CKD patients and 20% were adherent to medication in patients without CKD.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> To slow the progression of CKD, support of multidisciplinary action along with practice health education would enable the patients motivated to adhere to the treatment regimen.</p> Anandha Ruby Jacob Thomas V Paul Vathsala Sadan Copyright (c) 2024 International Research in Medical and Health Sciences 2024-06-10 2024-06-10 7 2 22 33 10.36437/irmhs.2024.7.2.C Retrospective Study to Identify the Common Signs and Symptoms, Morbidity and Mortality Pattern in Neonates Attending Pediatric Emergency Services, CMC, Vellore, South India <p>Children are not miniature adults but individuals with uniqueness and specific needs. They have a lot of challenges due to their various stages of growth and development process and particularly their organ systems are very immature and easily will be insulted their pediatric nurses as well the health care team members need to be vigilant in preventing illnesses and managing their illnesses so that they will not develop complications. This article explains the need for early intervention in the management of newborns, identifying their signs and symptoms at an early stage and preventing impending complications.</p> Lilly Prasad Vandana Pande Ruma Nayak Debasis Das Adhikari Copyright (c) 2024 International Research in Medical and Health Sciences 2024-06-06 2024-06-06 7 2 34 42 10.36437/irmhs.2024.7.2.D Factors Associated with Awareness and Utilization of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Selected Public Hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pregnant women are at high risk for HIV infection. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to be safe and effective in preventing HIV among risk populations, awareness and utilization of PrEP among pregnant women, remain low in Zambia. This study aimed to assess factors associated with awareness and utilization of PrEP among pregnant women in selected public hospitals in Lusaka City, Zambia.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods and Materials:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted and systematic random sampling was used to select HIV-negative participants from four randomly selected hospitals in Lusaka Zambia. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, awareness, and utilization of PrEP. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to assess association between categorical variables Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with awareness and utilization of PrEP. Data was analyzed using Stata version 15 and for all statistical analysis, a p-value of &lt;0.05 was considered significant.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the 377 pregnant women included, almost half 187 (48.8%) were between 21 – 30 years, and only 10(2.6%) were 41 or more years old. There were 53.1% (n=200) who were aware and 12.2% (n=46) were utilizing PrEP. In multivariable analysis, not knowing health facilities that offer PrEP (AOR = 2.88; 95% CI: 1.05 – 10.83; p = 0.023), not knowing eligibility for PrEP (AOR = 4.12; 95% CI: 2.08 – 12.02; p=0.004) and not knowing importance of PrEP (AOR = 6.05; 95% CI: 2.14 – 9.88) were significantly associated with decreased utilization of PrEP. For awareness, those who knew importance of PrEP (AOR = 7.06; 95% CI: 2.09 – 12.8; p=0.002), eligibility criteria (AOR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.15 – 5.53; p = 0.017) and knowing facilities that offer PrEP (AOR = 6.98, 95% CI: 3.12 – 10.66; p&lt;0.0001) were more likely to be aware of PrEP.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Awareness was low (53.1%) as well as utilization (12.2%) of PrEP. The factors associated with awareness were knowing the facilities that offer PrEP, eligibility, and importance of PrEP. Non-utilisation of PrEP was associated with not knowing the importance, the correct source, eligibility criteria as well as not knowing whether pregnant women can take PrEP.</p> Bright Musebo Makenzih Gricella Mkumba Ketty Mwansa Lubeya Patrick Kaonga Eustarckio Kazonga Copyright (c) 2024 International Research in Medical and Health Sciences 2024-06-13 2024-06-13 7 2 43 69 10.36437/irmhs.2024.7.2.E